kakapo scientific name
In 1989, a Kakapo Recovery plan was developed, and a Kakapo Recovery programme was established in 1995. Once a female enters the court of one of the males, the male performs a display in which he rocks from side to side and makes clicking noises with his beak. ; Cockrem, J.F. ; Jansen, P.W. ; Eason, D.K. In the late 19th century, the kakapo became well known as a scientific curiosity, and thousands were captured or killed for zoos, museums and collectors. The first action of the plan was to relocate all the remaining kakapo to suitable islands for them to breed. ; Moorhouse, R.J. 2006. A female kakapo will likely be able to produce eggs even when there are few resources, while a male kakapo will be more capable of perpetuating the species when there are plenty, by mating with several females. [50] Subfossil and midden deposits show that the bird was present throughout the North and South Island before and during early Māori times. Atkinson, I.A.E. Vol. Males remain in the region of their court throughout the courting season. The 1-4 eggs are laid in a shallow depression in the soil or rotten wood, which is repeatedly turned-over before and during incubation. A keen naturalist, Henry was aware that native birds were declining, and began catching and moving kakapo and kiwi from the mainland to the predator-free Resolution Island. Kakapo leave conspicuous evidence of their feeding activities, over feeding areas that range between 10 by 10 metres (30 ft × 30 ft) and 50 by 100 metres (160 ft × 330 ft) per individual. [50], In breeding years, the loud booming calls of the males at their mating arenas made it easy for Māori hunting parties to track the kakapo down, and it was also hunted while feeding or when dust-bathing in dry weather. The kakapo parrot, their scientific name; Strigops habroptila is a land dwelling flightless bird that lives in the secluded islands of New Zealand. Tipa, R. 2006. It is also very unlikely that any kakapo exist other than at a few managed sites, and so the chances of misidentification are very low. To attract females, males make loud, low-frequency (below 100 Hz) booming calls from their bowls by inflating a thoracic sac. Farrimond, M.; Clout, M.N. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [6] The introduction of predators such as cats, rats, ferrets, and stoats during British colonisation almost wiped out the kakapo. In the same studies, 28 females were found to average 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) and 18 females were found to average 1.28 kg (2.8 lb), respectively. In a plate-sized depression often at the crest of a rocky knoll, the male inflates his chest like a bloated bullfrog, heaves his thorax, bobs his head, and releases a resonant boom like the sound made by blowing across the top of a large bottle. Farrimond, M.; Elliott, G.P. The most successful scheme has been the Kakapo Recovery Programme; this was implemented in 1995 and continues. [60], Mustelids have never colonised Stewart Island/Rakiura, but feral cats were present. [20] One of the most striking characteristics of the kakapo is its distinct musty-sweet odour. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). However, the population did not start to increase until kiore were removed from the islands and the birds were more intensively managed. What triggers nesting of kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)? [88] One source states that its flesh "resembles lamb in taste and texture",[87] although European settlers have described the bird as having a "strong and slightly stringent [sic] flavour". Its eggs and chicks were also preyed upon by the Polynesian rat or kiore, which the Māori brought to New Zealand as a stowaway. Conservation staff and volunteers have engaged extensively with some kakapo, which have distinct personalities. [17][18] Kakapo are the heaviest living species of parrot and on average weigh about 400 g (14 oz) more than the largest flying parrot, the hyacinth macaw. [49], The first factor in the decline of the kakapo was the arrival of humans. Rimu mast occurs only every three to five years, so in rimu-dominant forests, such as those on Whenua Hou, kakapo breeding occurs as infrequently. [51] Māori hunted the kakapo for food and for their skins and feathers, which were made into cloaks. [88] Kakapo feathers were also used to decorate the heads of taiaha, but were removed before use in combat. Notornis 53: 100-111. Females listen to the males as they display, or "lek". The population has reached 200 today, with the latest chick (Esperance-3-B-19) becoming a juvenile - when we add birds to the official tally. During the courting season, males leave their home ranges for hilltops and ridges where they establish their own mating courts. [67] Nest protection was intensified after 1995 by using traps and poison stations as soon as a nest was detected. 98 minutes (Kakapo footage from 1982; with rare pictures of Fiordland and Stewart Island), "To Save the kakapo" by Alison Ballance. [18] Males boom for an average of eight hours a night; each male may produce thousands of booms in this time. 2013 [updated 2020]. Elliott, G.P. The kakapo has a conspicuous facial disc of fine feathers resembling the face of an owl; thus, early European settlers called it the "owl parrot". Twenty-eight males were found to average 2 kg (4.4 lb) in one study, and 39 males were found to average 2.06 kg (4.5 lb) in another. [89] Bundles of kakapo tail feathers were attached to the sides of these containers to provide decoration and a way to identify their contents. Updates? Hand-rearing kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), 1997-2005. They confront each other with raised feathers, spread wings, open beaks, raised claws and loud screeching and growling. The eyes are dark brown. Home range size of kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) on Codfish Island. Much recent conservation management has focussed on managing matings, and using artificial insemination to minimise further genetic loss. One way researchers check whether bowls are visited at night is to place a few twigs in the bowl; if the male visits overnight, he will pick them up in his beak and toss them away. There, during the 1930s, it was often seen or heard, and occasionally eaten, by hunters or roadworkers. The belly, undertail, neck, and face are predominantly yellowish streaked with pale green and weakly mottled with brownish-grey. [88][89][90] Each one required up to 11,000 feathers to make. This raised the possibility that the species would become extinct, because there might be no surviving females. [100], Some sources give the kakapo's Latin name as, Every known kakapo, barring some young chicks, has been given a name, Security of threatened and at risk taxa – kākāpō, "The foods of kakapo on Stewart Island as determined from their feeding sign", "A parrot apart: the natural history of the kakapo (, "Can tech save New Zealand's 'gorgeous, hilarious' parrot?". That year a population of about 200 was discovered on Stewart Island off the southern tip of South Island, but here the birds were threatened by feral cats. Wild South Videos, Natural History New Zealand Ltd. Dunedin 1998. Of 21 chicks that hatched between 1981 and 1994, nine were either killed by rats or died and were subsequently eaten by rats. In mating years, males making "booming" calls for 6–8 hours every night for more than four months. [24] Every individual kakapo receives an annual health check and has their transmitter replaced. Elliott, G.P. Harper, G.A. Only one bird was captured in 1967; it died the following year. [55] Europeans knew little of the kakapo until George Gray of the British Museum described it from a skin in 1845. As well as the New Zealand falcon, there were two other birds of prey in pre-human New Zealand: Haast's eagle and Eyles' harrier. Notornis 53: 195-197. ; Elliott, G.P. Notornis 53: 138-142. Little Barrier Island was eventually viewed as unsuitable due to the rugged landscape, the thick forest and the continued presence of rats, and its birds were evacuated in 1998. These leks can be up to 5 kilometres (3 mi) from a kakapo's usual territory and are an average of 50 metres (160 ft) apart within the lek arena. [15][16] Males are larger than females. As of 2018 there was just 149 kakapo remaining in the wild. March 2014: With the kakapo population having increased to 126, the bird's recovery was used by, 2016: First breeding on Anchor; a significant breeding season, with 32 chicks; kakapo population grows to over 150. Wood, J.R. 2006. There are probably more kākāpō alive now than at any time for ≥70 years. Birds hunt very differently from mammals, relying on their powerful vision to find prey, and thus they usually hunt by day. Its “mainland” — consisting of a North and South Island — is quite volcanically active. Agonistic display and social interaction between female kakapo (Strigops habroptilus). ; Moorhouse, R.J. 2006. They are an animal that would not be alive today without the assistance of humans. In six years, he moved more than 200 kakapo to Resolution Island. kea, and kakapo) Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. [99], In a 2019 kakapo awareness campaign, the Kakapo Recovery Programme New Zealand National Partner, Meridian Energy, ran a Search for a Saxophonist to provide suitable mood music for encouraging mating to coincide with the 2019 kakapo breeding season. [87] Used to substantiate this claim were reported observations of these birds dropping the berries of the hinau and tawa trees (when they were in season) into secluded pools of water to preserve them as a food supply for the summer ahead; in legend this became the origin of the Māori practice of immersing food in water for the same purpose. Kakapo seem to have preferred broadleaf or mountain beech and Hall's tōtara forest with mild winters and high rainfall,[28] but the species was not exclusively forest-dwelling. It was also one of the endangered animals Douglas Adams and Mark Carwardine set out to find for the radio series and book Last Chance to See.

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